Bonsai cultivation is a long-term commitment that requires patience, dedication and foresight. But with proper care, these miniature trees can become cherished family possessions.
Aesthetic guidelines call for proportion among trunk, branches and foliage. They discourage strict radial symmetry and promote the appearance of age, maturity or natural landscapes.
Advanced techniques — grafting, air layering and carving — enhance the artistic expression of these miniature trees.
Dwarf Fruit Trees
Many horticultural innovations and techniques have been introduced in the 21st century. One of the best is the ability to grow fruit trees in containers, especially dwarf cultivars that do not require a large amount of space.
Fruit trees grown in containers make a lovely addition to the landscape and can be used to control weeds and add a fragrant floral accent. They enjoy full sun and well-draining soil. Mulching is often necessary to keep weeds under control and to conserve moisture in the soil.
Dwarf fruit trees are usually self-fertile, meaning they do not rely on another variety of tree to cross-pollinate for successful production. They reach maturity quickly, so you can be enjoying homegrown fruit in no time.
Dwarf varieties of lemons, apples, and pears are popular choices. These fruit trees also make excellent candidates for espalier training, an ancient technique for growing woody plants along flat two-dimensional surfaces such as walls, fences, and trellis. With a little practice, you can train these trees into creative shapes that save on space and create a living work of art.
Dwarf Trees for Containers
Growing dwarf fruit trees in containers is a rewarding endeavor that requires patience, dedication, foresight and creativity. With the proper care and attention, a container-grown bonsai tree will flourish, providing an attractive focal point for any room in your home.
Trunk Development: Through pruning, wire and training techniques, growers sculpt the trunks of a bonsai tree to exhibit age and character. They utilize bends, twists and tapering to mimic the natural growth patterns of full-size trees.
Foliage Design: By pruning and other means, growers create dense, beautiful canopy foliage, evoking the appearance of full-sized trees with their own unique interpretation. Carving adds depth, texture and artistry, and accent plants (moss, rocks, or small flowering species) complete the display.
For centuries, the Japanese practice of bonsai has captivated people worldwide. It reflects the culture’s values of harmony with nature, and the philosophy of wabi-sabi and mono no aware, which encourage mindfulness and a respect for the ephemeral nature of life.
Dwarf Trees for the Ground
Bonsai can be cultivated from many different types of trees. But the ones that work best are those with small leaves and a fast-growing habit. This makes it easier to maintain their miniature size and shape.
Growing and cultivating a bonsai tree requires a great deal of patience and self-control. The goal is to achieve a mature appearance while keeping the tree miniature. It’s a constant battle with nature, which takes decades to achieve. Training a tree is also a way to practice Zen Buddhism and wabi-sabi, an ancient Japanese concept that emphasizes simplicity and a lack of pretense.
When Neil was nineteen, he learned about the art of bonsai from the “Karate Kid” films and fell in love with it. He wanted to apprentice with Kimura, but other American bonsai enthusiasts warned him that he would find the master harsh and uncouth. Nevertheless, he traveled to Japan and was mesmerized by the wabi-sabi beauty of his surroundings, especially the diminutive trees.
Dwarf Tree Care
Many edible varieties of fruit tree grow well as dwarf plants, including apples, pears, figs, plums, and cherries. They are easy to cultivate in containers, providing a rich yield for the garden, patio, or veg patch.
Dwarf trees require less maintenance than standard fruit trees because of their smaller size. But pruning is still important to shape the plant and control size. Suckers and water sprouts should be removed, as should any diseased or dead limbs. Regular pruning, usually performed during dormancy in winter or early spring, helps to thin out the growth and encourage stronger fruiting.
Proper “training” of branches is achieved by wrapping them with wire that can be manipulated to bend them into desired positions. This is done to create the skeletal structure of the overall bonsai form. For a more natural look, the skeletal structure of the trunk can also be carved with a chisel or knife.